1.1561 A Discussion of the "Balance" of Continuity and Change in the Social Order of Meiji Japan.
It is a commonplace of history to observe that all ages are periods of transition, for history is characterized by continual change in human affairs. The Meiji Restoration of late 19th century Japan was such a transitional moment, for in a brief span of time the society, culture, economic and political order of Japan experienced a fundamental restructuring from a pre-Restoration society that was akin to the feudalism of medieval Europe, into a modern industrial nation state. A superficial reading of the history of this era would emphasize the extensive, and pervasive, changes Japan underwent in its social order during the late 19th century, and give little attention to the elements of continuity which carried over from the pre-Restoration era. This paper will argue that, while it is impossible to characterize the elements of discontinuity and continuity in the society of Meiji Japan as being in "balance", given the rapid and radical nature of change in the country at this time, nonetheless an understanding of the history of Meiji Japan requires an appreciation of the elements of continuity in Japanese culture. 5 pgs. 9 f/c. 1b.
Bibliography: 1 source(s) listed
Filename: 1561 Meiji Japan.doc
2.1563 The Japanese Today: Change and Continuity.
Marius Jansen and Edwin Reischauer have explored the major issues connected to contemporary Japan. In The Japanese Today; Change and Continuity, they explain why Japan has come to be regarded as one of the three of four most important countries in the world. More than anything, the authors concentrate on the Japanese people, their society, political institutions, business organization, and increasingly complicated and significant relations with the rest of the international community. They show that, in one very important sense, the success of Japanese society has almost been a miracle in the context of the defeat in World War Two. Indeed, the manner in which Japan has risen up after its conquest at the hands of the United States has truly been remarkable. One of the central issues that the reader is left pondering after reading this book is the phenomenon of Japanese homogeneity and its consequences for Japan's future. Indeed, in our multi-cultural world, Japan remains a society where discrimination continues to be practised. 9.5 pgs. 15 f/c. 1b.
Bibliography: 1 source(s) listed
Filename: 1563 Japan Change.doc
3.1636 FACISM IN 1930's JAPAN: Not a Simple Matter.
This paper will explore Japan's fascism but always keeping in mind that it was a movement linked very strongly to Japanese history and beliefs. It was far more than something political and therefore it was "not a simple matter". There are a number of texts which will be used in this analysis. One of the most important is Mishima's Runaway Horses. Mishima wrote a great deal and is considered by many people to be one of the most important writers of Japan's twentieth century. Mishima studied law as did the main character in Runaway Horses, Shigekuni Honda. Mishima was also a homosexual and this was revealed in his book, Confessions of a Mask. 9 pgs. 14 f/c. 6b.
Bibliography: 6 source(s) listed
Filename: 1636 Facism Japan.doc
4.1700 The Security Treaty Crisis of 1960.
Most Japanese that grew up after the 1970s are not even aware of the struggles that were experienced before them. The same can be said for the study of post-war Japanese history. The lion's share of research has been on the Japanese economic 'miracle', and relatively little has been mentioned of the post war hardships. This paper marks an effort to shift this balance. It will explore the so-called security treaty crisis of 1960 between the US and Japan and pay particular attention to the social effects on Japan. To provide an understanding of the situation the origins of the crisis will be elaborated. Here, in addition to the domestic situation in Japan, the entire international scene must be looked at, as this was a critical time in the unfolding of the cold war. After setting this stage, the remainder of the paper will focus on the impact and importance of the crisis and the longer-term effects on Japan. 11.5 pgs. 15 f/c. 6b.
Bibliography: 6 source(s) listed
Filename: 1700 Security Treaty 1960.doc
5.1732 Individuality versus Group Identity in Tokugawa Japan: A Reading of Matsuo Basho and Ihara Saikaku.
With the realization of the complexity of our task, we will discuss the dynamic of individuality versus group identity in Tokugawa Japan, as represented in the literary works of two of its greatest writers: the poet Matsuo Basho and the novelist Ihara Saikaku. It will be argued that this dynamic manifested itself in their work as a balance of between individual artistic expression and participation in a common tradition. As will be seen, Basho's work emphasizes the group identity over individuality in his construction of a school of poetry with shared principles passed through his disciples. Saikaku, in contrast, emphasizes the individuality of his expression, as he explored the diversity of classes that mingled in the "floating world". This strategic balance between the two competing forces, it will be seen, is a fundamental aspect of the aesthetics of the Tokugawa period. 12.5 pgs. 18 f/c. 5b.
Bibliography: 5 source(s) listed
Filename: 1732 Group Identity.doc
6.1836 Post World War II Japan.
This paper gives a biographical overview of Japan's activities and relationships with the different super powers. The treatment of Japanese people during world war II is addressed. 14 pgs. 8 f/c. 12b.
Bibliography: 12 source(s) listed
Filename: 1836 Post War Japan.doc
7.1844 "Cram Schools" in Japan: A Study of the Relations of Ideology and Contradictory Practice.
In Japanese culture, there is a tradition of scholastic "excellence" about which there is a considerable amount of contradictory information. One such issue is the purpose and processes of such supplemental educational practices as "cram schools." This paper will define what "cram schools" are, and offer some competing rationalizations concerning the history of their existence and the contradictory perspectives of the purpose, benefits, and social costs of such supplemental education. This paper will argue that the education system itself is not specifically responsible for the existence of cram schools; but rather, that the presence of these schools can be traced through a variety of cultural and historical beliefs about the role of the family; that is, how particular ideological values are structured into family values, and how concepts of "success" and are directly traceable to the paternalistic ideologies which structure the family, in terms of family-role. 11 pgs. 20 f/c. 7b.